Main classification methods of different types of disinfectants
There are 9 types of commonly used disinfectant products by composition: chlorine disinfectant, peroxide disinfectant, aldehyde disinfectant, alcohol disinfectant, iodine disinfectant, phenol disinfectant, ethylene oxide, Biguanide disinfectants and quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants.
It refers to a disinfectant that dissolves in water to produce hypochlorous acid with microbicidal activity, and its microbicidal active ingredients are often expressed as available chlorine. Hypochlorous acid has a small molecular weight and is easy to diffuse to the surface of bacteria and penetrate the cell membrane into the bacteria body, oxidizing the bacteria protein and causing the bacteria to die. Chlorine-containing disinfectants can kill all kinds of microorganisms, including bacterial propagules, viruses, fungi, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the most resistant bacterial spores. Such disinfectants include inorganic chlorine compounds (such as sodium hypochlorite, calcium hypochlorite, trisodium chlorinated phosphate), organic chlorine compounds (such as sodium dichloroisocyanurate, trichloroisocyanuric acid, ammonium chloride T, etc.). Inorganic chlorine is unstable and easily affected by light, heat and humidity, and loses its effective ingredients. Organic chlorine is relatively stable, but it is unstable after being dissolved in water.
With strong oxidizing ability, various microorganisms are very sensitive to it and can kill all microorganisms. Such disinfectants include hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. Their advantage is that they leave no residual toxicity on the items after disinfection.
Chlorine dioxide has a strong ability to adsorb and penetrate the cell wall, and it releases atomic oxygen to oxidize the sulfhydryl-containing enzymes in the cell to play a bactericidal effect. A large number of foreign experimental studies have shown that chlorine dioxide is a safe and non-toxic disinfectant, and has no “three-causing” effects (carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic). At the same time, it does not react with organic matter during the disinfection process to produce chlorine dioxide. Organic chlorides or other toxic substances that produce “three effects”. However, because chlorine dioxide has a strong oxidizing ability, it should be avoided at high concentrations (>500ppm). When the concentration is less than 500ppm, its impact on the human body can be ignored. When the concentration is below 100ppm, it will not have any impact on the human body, including physiological and biochemical effects. It also has no sensitization effect on the skin. In fact, the conventional use concentration of chlorine dioxide is much lower than 500 ppm, generally only about tens of ppm. Therefore, chlorine dioxide is also recognized internationally as a safe and non-toxic green disinfectant.
Including formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde. The principle of this type of disinfection is that a lively alkylating agent acts on the amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl and sulfhydryl groups in the microbial protein, thereby destroying the protein molecule and killing the microbe. Both formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde can kill various microorganisms. Because they have irritation and curing effects on human skin and mucous membranes, and can sensitize people, they cannot be used for disinfection of air and food utensils. They are generally only used in hospitals. Disinfection or sterilization of medical devices, and the items that have been disinfected or sterilized must be rinsed with sterile water before using the remaining disinfectant.
The most commonly used are ethanol and isopropanol, which can coagulate protein and cause the death of microorganisms. It is a medium-efficiency disinfectant that can kill bacterial propagation and destroy most lipophilic viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B virus, and human immunity Defective virus etc. The antimicrobial effect of alcohol can also be affected by organic matter, and because it is volatile, it should be soaked and disinfected or wiped repeatedly to ensure its action time. Alcohols are often used as solvents for certain disinfectants and have synergistic effects. The usual concentration is 75%. According to foreign reports: 80% ethanol has a good inactivation effect on the virus. There are many compound alcohol disinfectants at home and abroad, and these products are mostly used for hand skin disinfection.
Including tincture of iodine and iodophor, which can kill bacterial propagules, fungi and some viruses, and can be used to disinfect skin and mucous membranes. It is often used for surgical hand washing and disinfection in hospitals.
Including phenol, cresol, halogenated phenol and phenol derivatives, the commonly used cresol soap is also known as Lysol, and its main component is methyl phenol. Halogenated phenol can enhance the bactericidal effect of phenol, for example, triclosan as a preservative has been widely used in clinical disinfection and antiseptic.
Also known as ethylene oxide, it is a highly effective disinfectant that can kill all microorganisms. Because of its strong penetrating power, it is often used for disinfection or sterilization after packaging leather, plastic, medical equipment, and medical supplies, and it has no damage to most items. It can be used for the disinfection of precision instruments and valuables, especially for The color of the paper has no effect, and it is often used for the disinfection of books, text and file materials.
8.Biguanide and quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants
Various types of disinfectants classified by efficacy.
According to the disinfection effect, there are 3 kinds: high-efficiency disinfectant, medium-efficiency disinfectant, and low-efficiency disinfectant.
High-efficiency disinfectant: refers to a preparation that can kill all bacterial propagules (including mycobacteria), viruses, fungi and their spores, etc., and also have a certain killing effect on bacterial spores (pathogenic spores), and meet high-level disinfection requirements.
Intermediate disinfectant: refers to a preparation that can kill microorganisms such as mycobacteria, fungi, viruses, and bacterial propagules, and meet the disinfection requirements.
Low-efficiency disinfectant: refers to a preparation that can kill bacterial propagules and lipophilic viruses and meet the disinfection requirements.
Glutaraldehyde is a sterilant: it has a broad-spectrum, high-efficiency sterilization effect, odor, and low toxicity. Small corrosion to metals.
Peracetic acid is a sterilizing agent: it has a broad spectrum, high efficiency, low toxicity, corrosive to metals or fabrics, is greatly affected by organic matter, and has poor stability.
Hydrogen peroxide is a highly effective disinfectant: it is broad-spectrum, highly effective, quick-acting, non-toxic, and corrosive to metals or fabrics.
Chlorine dioxide is a high-efficiency disinfectant: broad-spectrum, high-efficiency and quick-acting. It is corrosive to metals, has bleaching effect on fabrics, is greatly affected by organic matter, and the activation solution and diluent are unstable. Chlorine-containing disinfectant is a high-efficiency disinfectant, with broad spectrum, high efficiency, low toxicity, strong irritating odor, corrosive to metals, and bleaching effect on fabrics. It is greatly affected by organic matter and the disinfectant is unstable.
Hydrogen peroxide silver ion disinfectant: It is a high-efficiency disinfectant with broad-spectrum, high-efficiency, quick-acting, long-acting, non-toxic, odorless, non-irritating, can kill various bacteria and viruses, can remove harmful gases, release negative ions, and stabilize Good sex and other characteristics.
Dibromo hydantoin: It is a disinfectant that releases effective bromine, which can kill various microorganisms, including bacterial propagules, spores, fungi and viruses. Efficient and broad-spectrum.
Acidic oxidizing potential water: It has broad-spectrum, high-efficiency and non-toxic properties.
Iodine disinfectants are medium-acting disinfectants: medium-acting, quick-acting, low-toxic, non-irritating to the skin, corrosive to divalent metals, greatly affected by organic matter, and good stability. Compound iodine (povidone iodine)
Ethanol (alcohol) is a medium-acting disinfectant: medium-acting, quick-acting, non-toxic, irritating to the skin, non-corrosive to metals, greatly affected by organic matter, volatile, and unstable.
Guanidine disinfectants are low-efficiency disinfectants: no irritation to skin and mucous membranes, no corrosion to metal fabrics, slight influence of organic matter, good stability, etc. (including chlorhexidine acetate, chlorhexidine gluconate and polyhexamethylene Guanidine etc.).
Quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant is a low-efficiency disinfectant: package single-chain quaternary salt disinfectant and double-long-chain quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant, no irritation to skin and mucous membranes, low toxicity, good stability (such as Baidusha, Ruoxinjie Ermi, etc.).
Tengyu produced various types of disinfectants ask more details! +
Common disinfectant products
1.75% Ethanol Monotonic Disinfectant
This product is a disinfectant with ethanol as the main component. Mainly used as alcohol disinfectant spray. It is suitable for surface disinfection of general objects, disinfection of hands and skin. The original solution is rubbed once or twice for 1-3 minutes.
- Ethanol non-washing disinfection gel is ethanol gel, the effect is equivalent to using alcohol cotton ball to wipe hands, decontamination and sterilization. Its main winds are ethanol, water, carbomer, glycerol, triethanolamine and so on.
The common ethanol wash-free disinfection gels on the market are generally made of ethanol, isopropanol and other alcohols as the main sterilizing ingredients, plus a gel carrier. Long-term use of alcohols will make the skin dry and peeling, so many businesses will add moisturizers. For example, glycerin, vitamin E, etc., use carbomer to turn the solution into a gel, and the fluidity becomes poor, which is convenient to use. The concentration of carbomer is basically in the range of 0.2%-0.5%, and cosmetics often use this additive.
Generally speaking, when we use ethanol disposable sanitizing gel, the ethanol will sterilize and evaporate quickly after wiped off, leaving the bacteriostatic agent to inhibit the growth of the bacteriostasis. Glycerin and vitamin E moisturize and replenish the hand skin.
The most notable feature of the use of hand-washing disinfection gel is that it does not need to be rinsed with water, and it can effectively inhibit and remove bacteria from the hands without washing with water. Especially in summer, the growth rate of bacteria increases, especially intestinal pathogens, pyogenic cocci, yeasts, etc., which are common pathogens in hospitals. Medical workers must clean their hands frequently and keep their hands clean. However, the wrong way of using hand sanitizers cannot eliminate harmful bacteria. As a result, a large number of bacteria come into contact with patients through the hands of medical workers and cause infections.
Disposable cleansing gel can effectively defend against a variety of viruses and bacteria. Dozens of pathogenic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis have strong inhibitory and killing effects, and will not produce drug resistance.
Alcohol hand sanitizer gel advantage:
Highly effective antibacterial: prevent influenza virus, quickly and effectively sterilize, inhibit the growth of bacteria, the effective antibacterial rate is as high as 99.9%!
Convenient to use: wash your hands freely anytime, anywhere, no washing, quick-drying, no sticking to hands, convenient and healthy care!
English name: peroxyacetic acid
English name 2: peracetic acid
CAS No.: 79-21-0
Molecular formula: C2H4O3
Molecular weight: 76.05
Physical and chemical properties
Main ingredients: Content: 35% (by weight) and 18-23%.
Appearance and properties: colorless liquid with a strong pungent odor.
Melting point (℃): 0.1
Boiling point (℃): 105
Relative density (water = 1): 1.15 (20℃)
Saturated vapor pressure (kPa): 2.67 (25℃)
Flash point (℃): 41
Solubility: soluble in water, soluble in ethanol, ether and sulfuric acid.
Main use: Used for bleaching, catalyst, oxidant and epoxidation, and also used as a disinfectant.
Chemical properties: Complete combustion can produce carbon dioxide and water.
Health hazards: This product has a strong irritating effect on eyes, skin, mucous membranes and upper respiratory tract. After inhalation, it can cause inflammation, edema, spasm, chemical pneumonia, pulmonary edema of the larynx and bronchi. Contact can cause burning, cough, wheezing, laryngitis, shortness of breath, headache, nausea and vomiting.
Explosion hazard: The product is flammable, explosive, corrosive, and irritating, which can cause burns to the human body.
Hazardous characteristics: flammable, it will decompose violently when heated to 100℃, and it can detonate when exposed to fire, heat or shock. Contact with reducing agents, accelerators, organics, combustibles, etc. will cause violent reactions, and there is a danger of combustion and explosion. It is highly corrosive.
Alias: peracetic acid, peroxyacetic acid, PAA
Act on purpose
It is a broad-spectrum, quick-acting and high-efficiency sterilant. This product is a strong oxidant, which can kill all microorganisms. It can quickly kill viruses, bacteria, fungi and spores. It can be widely used in various appliances and environmental disinfection. The sterilization can be basically achieved by contacting 0.2% solution for 10 minutes. Used for air and environmental disinfection and preventive disinfection.
Dosage and usage
1 Wash hands Soak in 0.2%～0.5% solution for 2 minutes.
2 Plastic and glass products are immersed in 0.2% solution for 2 hours. 3 Spray 0.5% solution on the floor, furniture, etc.
1 “Original solution” is irritating and corrosive, so it should not be touched directly with hands.
2 It is corrosive to metals and cannot be used to sterilize metal instruments.
3 “Original solution” can be decomposed in storage. Pay attention to the expiry date. It should be stored in a plastic bucket in a cool and dark place, away from olefinic substances.
English name: hydrogen peroxide
Aqueous solution name: hydrogen peroxide
CAS No.: 7722-84-1
EINECS accession number: 231-765-0
Molecular formula: H2O2
Molecular structure: O atoms are bonded by sp3 hybrid orbitals, and the molecules are polar molecules.
Molecular weight: 34.01
Main ingredients: industrial grade, divided into 27.5% and 35%.
Appearance and properties: The aqueous solution is a colorless transparent liquid with a faint special odor. Pure hydrogen peroxide is a light blue oily liquid.
Melting point (℃): -2 (anhydrous)
Boiling point (℃): 158 (anhydrous)
Refractive index: 1.4067(25℃)
Relative density (water = 1): 1.46 (anhydrous)
Saturated vapor pressure (kPa): 0.13 (15.3°C)
Solubility: can be mixed with water, ethanol or ether in any ratio. Insoluble in benzene and petroleum ether.
Main use: It can be oxidized or reduced under different conditions. Available oxidants, bleaches, disinfectants, dechlorination agents, and for rocket fuel, organic or inorganic peroxides, foam plastics and other porous materials.
Health hazards: Inhalation of the vapor or mist of this product is strongly irritating to the respiratory tract. Direct eye contact with liquid can cause irreversible damage and even blindness. Oral poisoning occurs with abdominal pain, chest pain, dyspnea, vomiting, temporary movement and sensory disturbances, and elevated body temperature. Individual cases have visual impairment, epileptiform spasm, and paresis. Long-term exposure to this product can cause contact dermatitis.
Toxicity LD50 (mg/kg): 700 subcutaneously in rats
Combustion and explosion hazard: This product supports combustion and is highly irritating.
Hazardous characteristics: strong explosive oxidizer. Hydrogen peroxide itself is not flammable, but can react with combustibles to release a large amount of heat and oxygen, causing fire and explosion. Hydrogen peroxide is most stable when the pH value is 3.5-4.5, and it is easily decomposed in alkaline solution, and can also be decomposed when exposed to strong light, especially shortwave radiation. When heated to above 100°C, it begins to decompose rapidly. It forms explosive mixtures with many organic substances such as sugar, starch, alcohols, petroleum products, etc., and can explode under the action of impact, heat or electric spark. Hydrogen peroxide quickly decomposes when in contact with many inorganic compounds or impurities, causing an explosion, releasing a lot of heat, oxygen and water vapor. Most heavy metals (such as iron, copper, silver, lead, mercury, zinc, cobalt, nickel, chromium, manganese, etc.) and their oxides and salts are active catalysts. Dust, cigarette dust, carbon powder, rust, etc. can also Speed up decomposition. Hydrogen peroxide with a concentration of more than 74% can cause a gas-phase explosion in a closed container with an appropriate ignition source or temperature.
Emergency treatment: Quickly evacuate personnel from the contaminated area to a safe area, isolate them, and strictly restrict access. It is recommended that emergency response personnel wear self-contained positive pressure breathing apparatus and wear protective clothing. Cut off the source of leakage as much as possible. Prevent entry into restricted spaces such as sewers and flood drains. Small leakage: absorb with sand, vermiculite or other inert materials. It can also be washed with a lot of water, and the washing water is diluted and put into the waste water system. A large number of leaks: construct dikes or dig pits for storage. Spray water cools and dilutes steam, protects on-site personnel, and dilutes leakage into incombustibles. Use a pump to transfer to a tanker or a special collector for recycling or transport to a waste disposal site for disposal.
The role of hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide is a liquid with two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms in each molecule. It has strong permeability and oxidation. In medicine, hydrogen peroxide is commonly used to clean wounds and local antibacterial. According to the latest research, hydrogen peroxide is not only a medicinal product, but also an excellent beauty product.
Facial skin is in direct contact with the external environment and is often polluted by bacteria, dust, etc., coupled with the dirt formed by the sweat glands and sebaceous gland secretions of the skin itself, can easily induce acne, dermatitis, boils and other diseases, thereby affecting the beauty of the skin. Applying hydrogen peroxide to the surface can not only remove the dirt on the skin, but also directly enhance the activity of the surface cells, inhibit and oxidize the deposition of melanin, and make the skin delicate and elastic. Operation method: After washing the face with facial cleanser, apply 3% hydrogen peroxide to the face with a towel, 5 minutes each time, once a day, 10 days as a course of treatment, and pay attention to avoid hydrogen peroxide entering the eyes during operation.
In addition, hydrogen peroxide has the function of lightening the color of hair. For those women whose hair is too long and affect their appearance, after depilation, apply hydrogen peroxide directly on the skin twice a day, so that the hair will not grow in the future. Turns black and thick, but becomes soft and the color is light yellow
The hazards of hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide solution, commonly known as hydrogen peroxide, is a colorless and odorless liquid. It can be added to food to liberate oxygen and play a role in bleaching, antiseptic and deodorizing. Therefore, some businesses prohibit soaking in hydrogen peroxide during the production process of some foods that need to be whitened, such as: beef louver and jellyfish, shark fin, shrimp, hairtail, squid, canned fruit, and noodles to improve the appearance of the product. . A few food processing units re-sell the moldy dry aquatic products after soaking in hydrogen peroxide for bleaching, or to eliminate the blackening, congestion and mildew on the surface of sick chickens, ducks or pork, soak these raw materials in high-concentration hydrogen peroxide for bleaching, and then add artificial pigments or sub Nitrate hair color is sold. Hydrogen peroxide can cause cancer by forming epoxide with starch in food, especially cancer of the digestive tract. In addition, industrial hydrogen peroxide contains arsenic, heavy metals and other toxic and harmful substances, which seriously endanger the health of consumers. According to the regulations of the toxicity test report of FAO and WHO, hydrogen peroxide is limited to emergency measures for milk preservation. China’s “Hygienic Standards for the Use of Food Additives” also stipulates that hydrogen peroxide can only be used in limited quantities in milk, and only in Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang, and there must be no residues in other foods.
Chemical Name: Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4)
Common name: gray manganese oxide, PP powder
Potassium permanganate is a kind of salt
Properties and stability: The product is a dark purple slender prismatic crystal; bluish metallic luster; formula weight 158.04. Sweet and astringent. The density is 2.703 g/cm3. Decomposes above 240℃, easily soluble in boiling water, soluble in water, soluble in methanol, acetone, but mixed with glycerin, sucrose, camphor, turpentine, ethylene glycol, ether, hydroxylamine and other organic or easy substances. Burn or explode. The aqueous solution is unstable. The aqueous solution of this product is unstable and decomposes when exposed to sunlight, forming manganese dioxide, gray-black precipitate and adhere to the utensils. The potassium permanganate solution is purple red.
Drug effect: The product is used as a disinfectant, deodorant, and water purifier. Potassium permanganate is a strong oxidant. It releases new ecological oxygen and kills bacteria when it encounters organic matter. It has strong bactericidal power, but it is easily weakened by organic matter, so its effect is superficial and not lasting. It can be deodorized and disinfected, used for sterilization and disinfection, and has astringent effect. 0.1% solution is used to clean ulcers and abscesses, 0.025% solution is used for gargle or sitz bath, 0.01% solution is used for disinfection of fruits, etc., soak for 5 minutes. When potassium permanganate undergoes oxidation, it reduces to manganese dioxide, which combines with protein to form a protein salt complex. This complex and permanganese ion have astringent effects. Some metal ions are also used as oxidants in the analysis. It is also used as bleaching agent, poisonous gas absorbent, carbon dioxide refined preparation, etc.
5.Disinfectant chlorine tablets
(1) Product introduction:
- Product name: English name TCCA
- Molecular weight: 232.44
- Commodity code HS:2933.6990
(2) Physical and chemical properties
This disinfectant tablets product is a white powder or granule with a chlorine irritating smell, slightly soluble in water, and easily soluble in acetone.
(3) Product quality indicators
Appearance: white powder or granules and white tablets.
Particles (mesh): 6-8 mesh, 8-30 mesh, 20-40 mesh
Tablets: 1g tablets, 2g tablets, 5g tablets, 10g tablets, 20g tablets, 50g tablets, 100g tablets, 200g tablets, 500g tablets
Effective chlorine content %≥
PH value of 1% solution
(4) Product use
This product is a high-efficiency organochlorine disinfectant with an effective chlorine content of more than 90%. It has the characteristics of quick-acting and slow-release effect. As a new and efficient disinfection and bleaching agent, it has a wide range of applications and has no adverse effects on the human body. Well received by users at home and abroad.
- Used for dry cleaning and bleaching, especially suitable for use in hospitals and nursing occasions, especially suitable for bleaching and sterilizing white cotton cloth.
- It has a good effect on the disinfection and sterilization of drinking water, swimming pool water and domestic wastewater.
- It has a wide range of applications in aquatic products, poultry, poultry breeding, farms, vehicles and ships, sericulture, low-temperature bleaching in the textile industry, wool sterilization, shrink-proofing, and descaling and purification of civilian toilets.
- Used in oxidizer, chlorinating agent and rubber chlorinating agent in chemical industry.
(5) Product packaging
- Cardboard drum or plastic drum: 25kg. 50kg
- Plastic woven bag: net weight 25kg 50kg 1000kg
- Can be customized according to user requirements: 20‵containers can hold 21 tons (plastic drums) and 18 tons (cardboard drums).
(6) Storage and transportation
The product is in a ventilated and dry place, moisture-proof, waterproof, rainproof and fireproof. Prevent damage to the packaging during transportation.