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Speaking of disinfectants, everyone should be familiar with it. People often use disinfectants to kill pathogenic microorganisms in the media and prevent diseases. Compared with commonly used chlorine-containing disinfectants and peroxide disinfectants, quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants have the advantages of low toxicity, colorless, less odor, convenient use, and easy storage. After more than 100 years of development, they have been widely used Used in natural environment, hospital disinfection, breeding industry and other fields. But how much do you know about ammonium disinfectants, the “old man over a hundred years old” in the disinfection industry?

The development history of quaternary ammonium disinfectants

Quaternary ammonium disinfectants have been synthesized for the first time since Jacobs and others in the last century, and pointed out the disinfection properties of these compounds. After nearly a century of development, such disinfectants can be divided into seven generations, and the specific product types have reached several Hundreds of species, among which the representative products are mainly Zeolite (Benzalkonium Chloride), Xin Zeolite (Benzalkonium Bromide), Domifene (Dodecyl Dimethylphenoxyethyl Ammonium Bromide) and some composite Quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant, etc.

Disinfection mechanism of quaternary ammonium disinfectants

Low-concentration quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants have antibacterial effects, and the sterilization effect can be achieved by increasing the concentration. Quaternary ammonium disinfectants mainly gather on the surface of the bacteria to change the permeability of the cells, and the water enters to cause the bacteria to swell and break; affect the metabolism of the bacteria; denature the protein; inactivate the dehydrogenase and oxidase in the bacteria cell , And can decompose glucose, succinate, pyruvate and other enzyme systems to achieve antibacterial and sterilization effects.

Factors affecting the disinfection effect of quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants

The disinfection mechanism of quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants and their own chemical properties determine their shortcomings. Therefore, many factors must be considered in use and the actual environment must be selected. The main factors that affect the disinfection effect of quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants are:

  1. Organic substances. Since organic substances (such as serum) can reduce the bactericidal concentration of quaternary ammonium salts, organic substances on the surface of the object must be removed before disinfection with quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants.
  2. Antagonism. Quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant is a cationic surfactant, which can be combined with anionic surfactant to reduce the effective concentration of quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant. Common anionic surfactants in daily life include soap, washing powder, Tween-80, etc. In the process of using quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants, avoid mixing with these substances.
  3. Environment. Quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants are easily affected by factors such as pH, water quality, temperature, etc., and can exhibit better antibacterial and bactericidal effects in alkaline environments. Some quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants (such as quaternary ammonium salt benzalkonium bromide) can react with metal ions in high hardness water to reduce the effective concentration of quaternary ammonium salt, thus failing to achieve the corresponding disinfection effect. Therefore, when preparing quaternary ammonium salt disinfectants, distilled water should be used and the pH should be adjusted to alkaline in order to achieve the best disinfection effect.

 

Quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant detection method

As a chemical reagent, quaternary ammonium salt disinfectant has toxicity. Therefore, the accurate detection of the content of quaternary ammonium compounds in disinfectants and the residual amount of quaternary ammonium salts in the articles to be disinfected is the control of disinfection products and the guarantee of consumers’ health.

There are two methods for detecting quaternary ammonium disinfectants. One is a chemical method based on the detection of ingredients in disinfectants, such as ultraviolet spectrophotometer, high performance liquid (gas) chromatography, etc.; the other is a biological method for testing the disinfection effect of disinfectants, mainly based on “Disinfection Technology Standards” (2002 edition) and “Sanitary Standards for Quaternary Ammonium Disinfectants” (GB/T 26369-2010) for analysis.

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