Quaternary ammonium salt is also known as quaternary ammonium salt. The English name is Quaternary Ammonium Salt. It is a compound in which all four hydrogen atoms in the ammonium ion are replaced by a hydrocarbon group. The general formula R4NX, wherein the four hydrocarbon groups R can be the same or different. X is mostly halogen anions (F-, Cl-, Br-, I-), but also acid radicals (such as HSO4-, RCOO-, etc.).
Quaternary ammonium salt is used as a sterilization and disinfectant
Quaternary ammonium salt physical properties
Quaternary ammonium salts are similar in nature to inorganic salts, easily soluble in water, and the aqueous solution can conduct electricity. Mainly produced by the reaction of ammonia or amine with alkyl halide, for example:
Many of the quaternary ammonium salts that exist in nature have certain biological activity. Some quaternary ammonium salts can be used as phase transfer catalysts in drugs, pesticides, and chemical reactions. For example, Chlormequat [(CH3)3NCH2CH2Cl]Cl is a plant growth regulator, and benzyltriethylammonium chloride and tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulfate are both excellent phase transfer catalysts. In the phase transfer catalysis reaction, the quaternary ammonium salt can form an ion pair with the nucleophile in the water phase and enter the organic phase, thereby accelerating the reaction rate, reducing side reactions and increasing the yield.
When X in the quaternary ammonium salt molecule is OH, it is usually called a quaternary ammonium base. The quaternary ammonium base is a strong base, similar to the alkalinity of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. Some natural compounds are also quaternary ammonium bases, such as choline [(CH3)3NCH2CH2OH] OH, which is commonly found in organisms. The quaternary ammonium base decomposes into water, tertiary amine and olefins when heated. This reaction is called Hoffman reaction and is used to prepare olefins in synthesis. The quaternary ammonium base can be prepared by the reaction of quaternary ammonium halide and silver oxide.
Quaternary ammonium salts are generally less toxic than amines, but there are also many more toxic. For example, dodecyl to cetyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride used as a cationic surfactant is a semi-lethal dose for frogs. It is 30 mg/kg. For another example, both neuroalkaline (b) and muscarine (c) are highly toxic compounds, and the LD50 for intravenous injection of muscarine in rats is only 0.23 mg/kg.
TYchemical is a leading quaternary ammonium salt manufacturer factory, produces full series of quaternary products from the raw quaternary ammonium compounds materials to finished quaternary sanitizer/disinfectant products.
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Types of quaternary ammonium salt
- Monoquaternary ammonium
- Double quaternary ammonium salt (Gemini quaternary ammonium salt)
- Triquaternary ammonium salt
- Polyquaternary ammonium salt
- Hyperbranched quaternary ammonium salt
The role of quaternary ammonium salt
Including: agricultural disinfectant, disinfection in public places, circulating water disinfection and algaecide, aquaculture disinfection and disinfection, medical disinfection, disinfectant for livestock and poultry, red tide killer, cyanobacteria killer, etc. In particular, Gemini quaternary ammonium salt has outstanding sterilization effect and low overall cost.
Soft, antistatic agent
Mainly used in textile printing and dyeing industry, this kind of softener has excellent softness, antistatic, sterilization and anti-yellowing properties. The dosage is small, the effect is good, the preparation is convenient, the compatibility is good, and the price is extremely high.
It is widely used in water treatment industry as a quaternary ammonium salt used as an inorganic flocculant synergist.
Drilling fluid, VES fracturing fluid, drag reducer, thickener
Gemin viscoelastic surfactants are mainly used in the petrochemical industry, which is a new research and development trend.
Hyperbranched Jimmich quaternary ammonium salt breaks the traditional theory that anions cannot be compatible with cations. This type of product can not only be compatible with anions, but also has a synergistic effect and is widely used as an anionic synergist. 3. Prospects for the development of quaternary ammonium salt products
Quaternary ammonium salt products have been developing in the direction of environmental protection, easy biodegradation, no APEO, formaldehyde, and other harm to the natural environment and human health. With the improvement of public awareness and environmental protection quality requirements, such products continue to meet the needs of social development. It is the inevitable direction of the development of the surfactant industry in the future.
Quaternary salt toxicity
Quaternary ammonium salt in cosmetic ingredients-15
Acute toxicity: The rat acute toxicity test confirmed that the half-lethal dose is 500 mg/kg body weight.
Quaternary ammonium compounds irritating
Irritation data: skin-rabbit 500 mg/24 hours mild (with sensitization)
The World Health Organization, the National Cancer Institute, and the National
Toxicology Administration have determined that exposure to formaldehyde may be associated with the cause of leukemia. Reports show that quaternary ammonium salt-15 and formaldehyde are potentially potent allergens that can cause skin inflammation such as rashes.
Dangerous characteristics: thermal decomposition discharges toxic nitrogen oxides and chloride fumes.
Storage and storage
Storage and transportation characteristics: The warehouse is low-temperature, ventilated and dry; stored separately from food raw materials.
Extinguishing agent: water, carbon dioxide, foam, dry powder